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This one is a side quest of the water purification series. Go to the Jefferson Memorial and talk to Scribe Bigsley about his problems with Megaton. *Note. You obviously won't have this quest if the town is destroyed.
Go to Megaton and figure out the source of the water theft. You can watch a woman named Rosa accidentally kill a beggar by giving him a bottle of Aqua Pura. She'll explain that it was supposed to be blessed water from a church in Springvale. You can also find out about the new cult through pamphlets from the beggars, a note on your door, or general exploration.
Go into Springvale to find the new church set up in an old house. Talk to Brother Gerard. He'll give you a bottle of holy water and demand that you drink it first. Drink it to realize that it is badly irradiated Aqua Pura. You need to get inside to figure this one out. Gerard won't let you into the church if you aren't irradiated. You have a few options here.
You can kill him and take the key. No one in the church notices. You can pick the lock on the trapdoor behind him. No one minds, but it is a very hard lock. You can also just irradiate yourself by going into the house behind him and flipping the switch by the bathtub. This turns on the radiation trap and lets you quickly irradiate yourself. Turn it off when you've got minor poisoning and go back. You can also just wear the ghoul mask if you completed the Tenpenny Tower quest already. Wearing this should let you convince him that you're actually a ghoul and are already quite irradiated.
Once you get into the Church, it's pretty simple. Talk to Mother Curie III and ask her about the holy water. She'll go into a religious speech where she admits that she's been stealing it from Atom's angels (The Brotherhood of Steel). You have three options to get her to stop.
You can just whip out a shotgun and kill her. You'll have to kill the other two worshippers in the church though. You'll also be attacked by the glowing one and the feral ghoul reaver who lurk in the basement. That's fairly tough in close quarters, so be ready for a fight before you do it. There isn't a karma loss for this.
You can pass a standard Speech check to convince her to stop. Only one shot at this though, so save first.
You can also irradiate yourself past 800 rads. This nearly lethal amount can be achieved by activating the radiation traps in the basement or the one outside. Irradiate yourself badly and then limp back to her. If you have more than 800 rads, she will see you as a messiah and accept your order.
As a side note, you can also technically finish this by blowing up Megaton in the Power of Atom quest. If you detonate the bomb, then Brother Gerard will be a ghoul outside the building. He'll peacefully wait by the wreckage to provide help for Atom's followers. Mother Curie III will become a Feral Ghoul Reaver. Bigsley will be shocked at the destruction but still give you your reward.
Go back and talk to Scribe Bigsley for your well earned caps.
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Protecting the Waterway
Scribe Bigsley will also give you this one. Go to Rivet City and find Officer Lepelletier. She has an office set up on the ramp leading up to the ship. Start the conversation to learn about the bandit attacks. Go ahead and try the speech challenge. You can get a new plasma rifle if you pass it.
Go over to the marked location under the bridge. The caravan might already be there and previously attacked. The driver is almost always dead. The two security guards may win. If not, then kill the 3 bandits. Either way, search the bandit bodies for a tape explaining that their meeting place is at Wilhelm's Wharf and that the code is Mirelurk Stew. Go to Wilhelm's Wharf to meet the leader, Split Jack.
You have a few options. You can just use a speech challenge and your intelligence to point out that there will never be money to be made from extortion since they aren't selling it in the first place. This isn't too hard and it makes them all walk away.
You can just shoot them. They aren't tough and you won't get bad karma. Go back and report your success.
You can also join the gang. You can then put on the equipment and challenge Split Jack to a dual. You can pick a knife, a pipe, or a nail board for the dual. Don't have any companions with you though, since that counts as cheating. If you win honestly, then the group will split up. This isn't too hard, even for a non-melee player. The only real problem is that you can't hit any of the other bandits. This is much harder than it sounds, since they love to get very close to the action. Stay close to the water to keep them at a safe distance.
You can then go back and extort 500 caps from Lepelletier or demand weekly payments to the gang. She will go hostile if you try to talk to her again. Just put your weapon away and she should stop attacking. You can also just report your success in stopping them. If you go back to Wilhelm's Wharf, then they'll accuse you of backstabbing them and attack.
Go to Scribe Bigsley for your reward. He'll give you some captured Enclave gear for stopping the attacks.
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The Amazing Aqua Cura
This one can be found in a few ways. You can hack the terminal in Bigsleys office and read the relevant log. You can pass a speech challenge and learn about Griffon's strange purchases in Underworld. You can also hear about it if your karma is already bad. You can also just talk to Griffon at his booth in the entrance to the Museum of History.
Take the free sample and examine it. You will find that it's just dirty water in a new bottle. He's scamming the ghouls into buying dirty water. You can find out a bit more with a speech check and evil karma. Otherwise, you can go back to Scribe Bigsley in the Jefferson Memorial. He'll mention that they drop off the water at the Museum Authority Building.
Go over to the new marked building. It's close to the Museum of History. Go inside and kill a few armed ghouls. Work your way down to the basement and examine the bathtubs. You'll find a few notes in this area and on the patrolling guards detailing his plan. The real stuff is in the tub, waiting to be sold to raiders and slavers, while he's giving the imitation to the ghouls.
Go back to the Museum of History and talk to Griffon. You have three options.
You can demand that he start selling the real stuff to keep your silence. You can come back in a week to get the confirmation. You don't get much out of this option, other than the fact that he really is selling the true stuff.
You can demand money. You can get 300 caps now or a cut of the profits each week.
You can also take the more fun option of demanding that he tells them the truth. He'll reveal the scam and refuse to give them any refunds. The angry crowd then attacks Griffon in a battle through the entrance hall. Watch the fight and loot Griffon's body for 400 caps after they kill him.