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Fallen Rock Cave
You can find this cave on the path into the Dead Horses camp. You'll need to be very careful once you get inside. Start by walking forward and disarming the tripwire. You can then safely walk into the front of the room. Disable the rigged shotguns if you want some extra loot, then move to the back of the cave. There are a few mines on the ground, so move forward carefully. You should have time to disarm them, since they're just basic frag mines. They also stand out against the ground fairly well though.
Move forward and watch for more tripwires as you move down into the cave. There are a few mines along the path too. On the bright side, there is a ton of cave fungus growing along the path. This is basically a wonder food, which reduces hunger, provides a fair amount of healing and even takes down your radiation. You'll want to turn to the right and swing down after watching for another tripwire, and the nasty trap of a mine next to an oxygen tank. Disarm the mine or shoot the tank from a distance to keep yourself alive.
There actually shouldn't be any enemies along the path, so just watch the ground and move at your own rate. At the end of the path, you should see it open up into a room with a number of beds. The entrance is guarded with several rigged shotguns, so pick out the tripwire from the darkness, and pick up the final frag mines at the start.
If you aren't playing on hardcore, there's a bed back here that you can use to heal up. The main highlights are in the back left corner though. There's a unique energy weapon called the “Compliance Regulator" lying on the ground in the back corner along with some spent microfusion cells. There's also more spent cells on the desk.
The army bag by the bed is the first of 6 survivalist caches, so inspect it for a whole lot of ammo and gear. Remember that you can dump some things on your companion, if you wish. Look at the computer too, to get the first two entries of the survivalist's guide. Once you're done reading through them, you can also use the reloading bench and the workbench. I strongly suggest taking the time to turn those drained cells into useable charges. Even if you don't need them, you can trade them.
The other path to the left is just another exit.
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Just go out the back, in the exit behind Joshua Graham, and walk to the left. The bag is lying under a handprint on the left wall.
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Two Skies Cave
Go inside and watch for the tripwire at the bottom of the first slope. The rigged shotgun is well hidden behind the brush. Follow the path and make your choice of entrance.
If you have 50 points in Repair, go straight. There's an electrified door here. You can either hack the terminal with 50 in Science or use 50 in Repair to break the power box.
If you don't mind swimming then cut to the right. You'll find a bunch of water in this flooded cavern. Just swim quickly through the tunnel and you'll be able to make it to the other side and get a breath of air, then make it out to the main cavern.
Swim for the land on the right side and you'll find two plasma mines under the brush. Look carefully for them and disarm both. The door to the hidden room requires 50 in Lockpick to open. Pop it open and you'll be able to loot another survivalist cache.
The survivalist cache is in the shack to the left. Take what you want, and then look for the computers in back for another 3 journal entries. There is also another reloading bench, and a few lockers and crates of explosives.
You can just take the easy path out, if you didn't shut down the door earlier. Either shoot the generator or use 50 points in Melee or Unarmed to break it and clear the way.
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You can go here by following the road north of the North Fork Bridge. This is a bit of an easier cave, since you can either risk a few bear traps and shotguns through the the brush covered path, and pick the lock on the door, or just fight through the chamber. To do that, just go inside and walk along the path until you get to a side room. You'll find a spore plant and a small spore carrier inside. Just headshot the runt and then put a few rounds into the spore plant.
Move forward into the central room to encounter a few spore plants and a number of spore carriers. If you can, just get some height on one of the roots and cover your companion. They'll be able to do a lot of damage, since they can usually track them better. Engage the spore plants if they start spitting at you, but otherwise just watch for the carriers and take them out as you go.
Move through the tunnel to reach the upper level with the explosives crates. Loot them and then open the gate. Disable the plasma mine on the ground, and then go inside the survivalist's home. You can get another survivalist's cache from the shack and another piece of the story.
Leave through either path.
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Morning Glory Cave
You always get this one naturally during the quest for the Grand Staircase. Just follow the marker and kill the spore plants inside with Waking Clouds help. This is basically just Cueva Guarache, but easier.
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Stone Bones Cave
This is one of the only tricky ones to reach. It's inside the Sorrows Camp, but you'll need to get up on a ride to get to it. I found one surefire way was to walk up the path and past White Bird's cave. You can then find Crossroads Cavern. Just go inside and kill a few coyotes and White Legs to punch through to a second exit. You can then go through and make it across a bridge to find the Glass Chimes Cave. Don't go in, just look off of the ledge. You should be able to see the footprints marking the Stone Bones Cave below. Drop down to it.
Inside of going in the heavily trapped entrance, I also suggest that you quicksave and try to jump across to the other entrance marked with footprints. This is the back entrance which only has a single tripwire protecting it. If you go this way, you can just waltz right in and find the cache by a rock in the corner. The main draw is next to the footlocker though. There's a full set of Desert Ranger Armor lying next to it, which is really good medium armor. It also looks cool, if that matters.
Feel free to go out the heavily trapped entrance. There's a bunch of bear traps, tripwires and plasma mines hidden behind things, so keep your eyes down.
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The Red Gate
Walk over to Bighorner Bluff on the western side of the map. You'll have to go this way for "The Advance Scouts." If you walk to the edge of the shore, you should be able to find a rotten dock. If you look up, you should see a very pristine looking cliff to the side. You want to get to the top of that. Follow the coastline until you see a steep slope, then just walk up it. You'll be stopped right before the top by some rocks, but you can just jump on top of them and reach the top of the mountain.
Just look on the rocks for a skeleton to find the last survivialist cache. Inside, you'll get the "Survivalist's Rifle" and the final holotape.
Note that a number of people have reported the Survialist's Rifle as being missing or found on a random White Leg. Apparently some random NPCs have a tendency to loot the bag. Just kill the White Legs in the area and it should turn up.
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All screenshots from Fallout: New Vegas - Honest Hearts DLC